Present Perfect Tense is one of the 4 sub-tenses of Present Tense. Present Perfect Tense refers to those actions which have already occurred but have their effect at the moment. This tense represents actions in unspecified time between recent past and now.
It can be differentiated from other sub-tenses through understanding of their structure.
The structures of the Present Perfect Tense with examples are as follows:
1. Sub + has/have + v3 + obj. (Affirmative i.e. Positive sentences)
- She has played hockey.
- They have won the competition.
2. Sub + has/have + not + v3 + obj. (Negative Sentences)
- She has not played hockey.
- They have not won the competition.
3. Has/Have + Sub + v3 + obj? (Positive interrogative)
- Has she played hockey?
- Have they won the competition?
4. Has/Have + sub + not + v3 + obj? (Negative Interrogative)
- Has she not played hockey?
- Have they not won the competition?
5. Wh-word + has/have + sub + v3 + obj? (Wh-Question)
- What has she played?
- What have they won?
Where Present Perfect Tense is used?
Present Perfect Tense is used with actions/events which were completed recently or in the immediate past.
- She has just come to the office.
- They have just gone outside.
- I have just finished my assignment.
- We have just started cooking.
- His father has just started business.
Present Perfect Tense is used with interesting events/actions, and accomplishments.
- I have swum in a pond.
- My father has been to Thailand.
- Natasha has achieved highest grades.
- Medical researchers have finally become successful in treating Ebola patients.
- Daniel has invented super trains.
Present Perfect Tense is used with the changes that have gradually taken place over a period of time.
- My work has been valued than before.
- How long have you been in relationship?
- My brother has not finished his assignment yet.
- He has been more patient than he was in the past.
- How long have you known Sasha?
Present Perfect Tense is used with past actions/events whose time of occurrence is not mentioned.
- I have been to Germany.
- Mother has finished knitting.
- They have painted the house.
- My students have passed the exam.
- We have read the will.
Present Perfect Tense is used with For + period of time and Since + point in time.
- They have had a disease since last two years.
- He has taught in a school for three months.
- I have had headache for last three hours.
- I have loved him since my young days.
- She has danced in this academy for 35 years.
Present Perfect Tense is used to talk about various events/actions which took place at different times in the past and there are chances that those actions/events can occur again.
- My mother has baked cake twice this week.
- I have had three relationships.
- She has talked to her parents about her illness.
- We have had a big loss at our company this month.
- Saudi Arabia has attacked Yemen many times this year.