Tenses

Tense is a division through which time and period of happening of an action is expressed. It tells actions happened, happen or will happen. In simpler form, Tenses are the forms of a verb.

There are three main kinds of Tenses. They are:

1. Past Tense

A verb which refers to the time which has already passed is called the Past Tense.

For Example:

  • He had eaten rice. (The task of eating rice is already done.)
  • The vase was broken. (The task of breaking base has been done)

2. Present Tense

A verb which refers to the ongoing time is called the Present Tense.

For Example:

  • I have eaten rice. (The task of eating rice has just been done)
  • Somebody is breaking the vase. (The task of breaking vase is going on)

3. Future Tense

A verb which refers to the time yet to come is called the Future Tense. Future tense deals with assumption and prediction.

For Example:

  • I will have eaten rice. (The task of rice to be eaten is assumed)
  • The vase will be broken. (The fate of vase is also predicted here)

Each of the above tenses has further four sub-tenses. They are given below with their structures:

Past Tense

1. Simple past tense

  1. Sub + v2 + obj. (for affirmative i.e. positive sentence)
  2.  Sub + did not + v1 + obj. (Negative)
  3. Did +sub + v1 + obj? (Interrogative-positive)
  4. Did + sub + not + V1 + obj. (Interrogative-negative)

2. Past continuous tense

  1. Sub + was/were + v+ obj. (for Affirmative i.e. positive sentence)
  2. Sub + was/were not + v4 + obj. (Negative sentence)
  3. Was/were + sub + v4 + obj? (Positive Interrogative)
  4. Was/were + sub + not + v4 + obj? (Negative Interrogative)
  5. Wh-word + was/were + sub + v4 + obj? (Wh-question)

3. Past perfect tense

  1. Sub + had + v3 + obj. (Affirmative i.e. Positive sentence)
  2. Sub + had + not + v3  + obj. (Negative sentence)
  3. Had + sub + v3 + obj? (Interrogative)
  4. Had + sub + not + v3 + obj? (Interrogative sentence)
  5. Wh-word + had + sub + v3 + obj? (Wh-question)

4. Past perfect continuous tense

  1. Sub + had been + v4 + obj. (Affirmative i.e. Positive sentence)
  2. Sub + had not been + v4 + obj (Negative sentence)
  3. Had + sub + been + v4 + obj? (Positive Interrogative)
  4. Had + sub + not + been + v4 + obj? (Negative Interrogative)
  5. Wh-word + had + sub + been + v4 + obj? (Wh-question)

Present Tense

1. Simple present tense

  1. Sub + v1/v5 + obj. (Affirmative i.e. Positive sentence)
  2. Sub + does not/doesn’t + v1 + obj. (Negative Sentence)
  3. Do/Does + sub + v1 + obj? (Positive Interrogative)
  4. Do/Does + sub + not + v1 + obj? (Negative Interrogative)
  5. Wh-word + do/does + sub + v1 + obj? (Wh-Question)

2. Present continuous tense

  1. Sub +  is/am/are + v4 + obj.  (Affirmative i.e. positive sentence)
  2. Sub + is/am/are + not + v4 + obj. (Negative sentence)
  3. Is/Am/Are + sub + v4 + obj? (Positive Interrogative)
  4. Is/Am/Are + is/am/are + sub + not + v4 + obj? (Negative Interrogative)
  5. Wh-word + is/am/are + sub + v4  + obj (Wh-Question)

3. Present perfect tense

  1. Sub + has/have + v3 + obj. (Affirmative i.e. Positive sentence)
  2. Sub + has/have + not + v3 + obj. (Negative Sentence)
  3. Has/Have + Sub + v3 + obj? (Positive interrogative)
  4. Has/Have + sub + not + v3  + obj? (Negative Interrogative)
  5. Wh-word + has/have + sub + v3 + obj? (Wh-Question)

4. Present perfect continuous tense

  1. Sub + has/have been +v4 + obj. (Affirmative i.e. Positive sentence)
  2. Sub + has/have + not + been + v4 + obj. (Negative Sentence)
  3. Has/Have + sub + been + v4 + obj (Positive Interrogative)
  4. Has/Have + sub + not + been + v4  + obj (Negative Interrogative)
  5. Wh-word + has/have + sub + been + v4 + obj? (Wh-question)

Future Tense

1. Simple future tense

  1. Sub + shall/will + v1 + obj. (Affirmative i.e. Positive Sentence)
  2. Sub + shall/will + not + v1 + obj. (Negative Sentence)
  3. Shall/Will + sub + v1 + obj? (Positive Interrogative)
  4. Shall/Will + sub + not + v1 + obj? (Negative Interrogative)
  5. Wh-word + shall/will + sub + v1 + obj? (Wh-Question)

2. Future continuous tense

  1. Sub + shall/will be + v4 + obj. (Affirmative i.e. Positive Sentences)
  2. Sub + shall/will not + be + v3 + obj. (Negative Sentence)
  3. Shall/Will + sub + be + v4 + obj? ( Positive Interrogative)
  4. Shall/Will + sub + not + be + v4 + obj. (Negative Interrogative)
  5. Wh-word + shall/will + sub + be + v4  + obj? ( Wh-question)

3. Future perfect tense

  1. Sub + shall/will + have + v3 + obj. (Affirmative i.e  Positive Sentences)
  2. Sub + shall/will + not + have + v4 + obj. (Negative Sentence)
  3. Shall/Will + sub + have + v3 + obj? (Positive Interrogative)
  4. Shall/will + sub + not + have + v3 + obj? (Negative Interrogative)
  5. Wh-word + shall/will + sub + have + v3 + obj? (Wh- Question)

4. Future perfect continuous tense

  1. Sub + shall/will + have been + v4 + obj. (Affirmative i.e. Positive Sentences)
  2. Sub + shall/will + not + have been + v4 + obj. (Negative Sentence)
  3. Shall/Will + sub + have been + v4 + obj? (Positive Interrogative )
  4. Shall/will + sub + not + have been + v4 + obj? (Negative Interrogative)
  5. Wh-word + shall/will + sub + have been + v4 + obj? (Wh- Question)